miercuri, 26 noiembrie 2008

Utopie moderna

"Un cunoscut economist american, domnul Galbraith (John Kenneth Galbraith), propune lumii capitaliste dezvoltate un ritm mai lent de crestere economica, pornind de la ideea ca princi­piul societatilor de consum este un principiu artificial, care impiedica pe om sa se bucure cu adevarat de bo­gatia vietii. Sfantul Petru, la poarta Raiului, cica nu l-ar mai intreba pe om ce fapta buna sau pe cine a facut fericit pe pamant, ci numai ce a facut pentru a spori produsul national brut. Sporirea consumului nu consti­tuie o garantie a fericirii maxime, pentru simplul motiv ca omul nu consuma din necesitate, ci fiindca e impins de o publicitate aiuritoare. Lucrurile n-ar fi atat de complicate daca s-ar limita numai la atat, fiindca ar fi suficient sa suprimam excesul de publicitate, dar con­sumul reprezinta pentru imensa majoritate a oamenilor masura realizarii, cu cat cineva poseda si consuma mai multe produse, cu atat mai mult e cineva. Fireste, sunt exclusi din aceasta categorie oamenii saraci.
Asta imi aminteste de un mic sef de la noi dintr-un judet, care la o petrecere organizata de el cu mijloacele puse la dispozitie de cei din subordine, adica ale satului, dupa ce s-a ghiftuit bine, ca sa arate el cat e de grozav, a inceput sa joace fotbal cu pui fripti. Bineinteles ca a fost dat afara, dar asta pentru ca a gasit el un mod prea original de manifestare a satisfactiei consumului, altii insa o fac pe tacute, cunoscand in secret tot ceea ce poseda ceilalti.
Asta e de cand lumea! Se vede ca acest economist american, cu ideile lui, traieste intr-o lume a carei vechime nici n-are bine cateva sute de ani! Fiindca ce vrea el? O schimbare de optica in psihologia omului de asa maniera incat, de pilda, un automobil Cadillac sa devina comic! Cu alte cuvinte, sa razi de el cum ai rade daca cineva ti-ar propune sa te duci la serviciu sau sa iesi dumineca la Baneasa, cu nevasta sau iubita, intr-o cotiga trasa de un magar. Si nu fiindca acest Cadillac ar fi demodat, ci asa, pur şi simplu, ca am descoperit noi ce stupid e sa fii aservit dorintei de a-l poseda. Stupid ar fi intr-o prima faza, comic in cele din urma, prin amintirea a ceea ce idolul fusese odi­nioara in ochii nostri.
Mi se pare tonica aceasta viziune a acestui ganditor idealist care imagineaza o asemenea utopie, care e in felul ei sublima. Dar e utopie fiindca niciodata omul nu si-a imbunatatit conditia prin renuntare voluntara la ceva, prin virtute, ci prin epuizarea unei experiente, chiar daca cu rezultate previzibil tragice. Numai asta il convinge, sau mai exact numai asta l-ar trezi, in cazul de fată, din betia posesiunii. Telul, in aceasta lume, zice ganditorul, nu este consumul, ci folosirea vietii. Ei bine, bucuria asta a vietii este sa ai un Ca­dillac, sau chiar o Dacia 1300, fiindca atata timp cat nu definim exact si concret in ce poate consta aceasta bucurie a vietii, dorintele noastre se vor mula pe ceea ce exista si ne vom face din indeplinirea lor un tel, chiar daca asta se va solda cu un adanc dezechilibru dintre munca si satisfactii, cu alte cuvinte chiar daca vom descoperi ca satisfactiile nu izvorasc din tot mai multa munca, pentru a consuma tot mai mult. Da, vom raspunde, asa este, dar ce sa facem? ... Pornim de la ideea ca nu vom deveni niciodata liberi şi fericiţi pana nu ne vom eli­bera complet de obsesia nevoilor materiale, care daca prezinta si forme aberante in sensul ca unii dintre noi, scapati de aceasta obsesie, nu mai stiu ce sa faca si joaca fotbal cu pui fripti, nu inseamna ca toti oamenii s-au si eliberat de această obsesie si ca omenirea are destule paturi de spital, destule medicamente, ingrijirea medicala gratuita, painea gratuita, carţile si in general bunurile spirituale gratuite. Da, aceasta lume in care o parte a societatii se zbate inca in lipsuri si griji, in timp ce alta vrea sa îngroape automobilul cu ipocrite cantece funebre, in timp ce in alta parte a lumii o mama isi pierde copilul fiindca n-are cu ce sa-l trasporte pana la spitalul cel mai apropiat, este clar ca nu e o lume bine intocmita. Si in aceasta privinta, chiar daca nu este eficienta, gandirea idealista a economistului american, prin apelul ei indirect la decenta, la lupta pentru intoarcerea la sursa primordiala a vietii, este macar frumoasa, mai ales ca aspectul ei de utopie nu-l împiedica sa constate lucid ca majoritatea roadelor cresterii economice a tarilor capitaliste au luat drumul bogatului si ca o redistribuire rationala a bunurilor se impune. Ar fi, zicem noi, o solutie revolutionara si singura urgenta."

(Marin Preda, Imposibila intoarcere, 1972)

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